Saturday, September 20, 2008

Collider down for Two Months

CNN is reporting this morning that the Large Hadron Collider will be out of commission for at least two months. Engineers at CERN say that the damage from the two incidents described in the previous post is worse than they thought, and the device will have to be warmed up from its cold operating temperatures to repair it.

Hopefully they will wait until after Christmas to operate the machine again. It would be sad if an earth destroying black hole were to eat the earth on December 23d as we did our last minute shopping.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Extending Physics to the Sub-Fermionic/Bosonic Particle Level Yields a New and Powerful Theory of Gravitation.

Dr. Gerhard Löbert, Otterweg 48, 85598 Baldham, Germany
Physicist. Recipient of The Needle of Honor of German Aeronautics.
Program Manager "CCV, F 104G" (see Internet).
Program Manager "Lampyridae, MRMF" (see Internet)

Abstract: Extending physics to the subphotonic particle level yields a new theory of gravitation that not only covers the well-known Einstein effects but also points out a number of post-Einstein-effects that show up in recent geo- and astrophysical observations. The new theory is based on quantum mechanics and is free of the problem of the intolerably high vacuum energy density that plagues General Relativity.

The currently favoured gravitational theory, the General Theory of Relativity (GR) of Einstein, is pre-quantum-mechanics, purely geometric, and deviates from reality by at least 41 orders of magnitude (see Weinberg, S.: Rev. Mod. Phys. Vol. 61, 1989, p. 1). Definite proof of the fallacy of GR is provided by the Casimir experiment in which a vacuum energy density of 0.03 J/m³ has been measured. With this energy density, which is more than 8 orders of magnitude higher than the mean density of the rest energy of the visible matter content of the universe, GR gives a universe age that is three orders of magnitude smaller than the age of the Earth! The measured vacuum energy density is higher than the maximum value of approx. 4 eV/mm³ allowed by GR (see Overduin and Priester, Naturwissenschaften 2001, p. 229) by a factor of 50 000 000! The PSR 1913+16 binary system is unsuitable for validating Einsteinian gravitational waves since a mere acceleration of this sytem of 0.01 mm/sec² completely contaminates the time sequence of the pulse train received from that system.

As a logical consequence, GR must be discarded and replaced by a theory of gravitation that is in line with modern particle interaction theory and is in good agreement with experiment. The author has developed such a new theory. This theory, which is based on quantum mechanics and on two plausible post-university-teaching assumptions, not only covers the well-known Einstein effects but also points out a number of post-Einstein-effects that show up in recent geo- and astrophysical observations. The new theory is based on quantum mechanics and is free of the problem of the intolerably high vacuum energy density that plagues General Relativity.

The first assumption is founded on the fact that in the documented particle accelerator experiments, all particles have displayed a dynamic behaviour identical to that of equal-energy electromagnetic radiation enclosed in a vessel with perfectly reflecting walls. Hence, not only photons but all elementary particles must - with high probability - be of an electromagnetic nature. They can be represented by non-radiating oscillating multipole fields carrying energy and angular momentum suitably combined with electrostatic fields. This paradigm reduces Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity to an afternoon exercise for any physics student, and makes that exotic theory understandable for everybody.

Every force field requires a carrier, either in the form of a substrate or a mediating particle. Generations of electrodynamicists have disregarded this simple wisdom. It is here assumed (second assumption) that electromagnetic fields are carried by a dense sea of polarisable and magnetisable subphotonic particles of extremely low mass called "seaons". (Because of Einstein's abstract way of deriving Special Relativity, many physicists think that physical theory does not allow the existence of a carrier medium and a preferred frame of reference. This is, of course, not true. The microwave background radiation shows that a preferred reference frame does exist, and, as every electrodynamicist knows, in an electromagnetic world there is no fundamental difference between an ideal dielectric medium with its distinct frame of reference and the vacuum.) This seaon sea fills the complete universe and is presently expanding from its initial state of infinite particle density at the time of the big bang. The gaskinetic particle motion within the Sun on the one hand, and the dynamics of galaxy clusters and superclusters on the other, yield a seaon mass of some 10**(-33) neutron masses.

The quantum-mechanical interaction of the seaons with the electromagnetic field of a material particle of mass m1 results in a spherically symmetric increase of the local seaon particle number density and, as a consequence, in a spherically symmetric reduction of the local speed of light of the form c(r) / cinfinity = 1 - G m1 / (c²r). (Here c is the distance travelled by light in one unit of local time). Because of the gradient in c, a second material particle of mass m2 and electromagnetic energy m2c² placed in the c-field of the first particle experiences the well-known electromagnetic gradient force F = (m2c²) grad c / c = G m1 m2 / r².

The new gravitational theory is called Seaon Theory (ST). Because it is based on quantum mechanics and not on geometry, ST displays a number of post-Einstein-effects that are not covered by GR. These post-Einstein-effects are:

a) The slow secular changes of almost all physical quantities
As a result of the steady decrease of the particle number density in the expanding seaon sea, the vacuum electromagnetic properties, the speed of light, the gravitational "constant" and other physical quantities change slowly with time. This post-Einstein-effect explains the slow (secular) increase of the orbital radii of all planets, the warm paleo-climates of Earth and Mars, the slow decrease of the pressure within the celestial bodies, the slow increase of the radius of the Earth, the slow decrease of the rotational velocity of the Earth, the slow decrease of the ratio of continental to oceanic crust area and the secular fall of the sea level of the oceans, and also explains why the oldest stars seem to be much older than the universe.

b) The extremely small but finite dependence of the gravitational force on the relative velocity of two gravitationally interacting bodies. This quantum mechanical post-Einstein-effect explains the large deficit of solar neutrinos, the heating of the coronal and the intergalactic gas to millions and hundreds of millions of degrees, respectively, as well as the heat surplus of Jupiter and Saturn. This interaction energy is extracted from the almost unlimited enrgy reservoir of the seaon sea that constitutes the vacuum.

c) The transition of the gravitational force from the inverse square law to a 1/r variation at galactic and supergalactic distances. This post-Einstein-effect that results from the quantum mechanical interaction in an expanding substrate with a time-varying source strength, considerably alleviates the dark matter problem.

d) The gravitational deactivation of matter in superdense, supermassive bodies as a result of the conversion of electromagnetic rest energy into electromagnetic kinetic energy during the free fall of a particle.
According to the new theory, a particle in free fall towards a body gains kinetic energy at the expense of its rest energy mc². (In a purely electromagnetic world, the energy form "gravitational energy" has no real existence.) As the particle falls, its rest mass and, as a consequence, its gravitational source strength are decreasing steadily. When a supermassive gas cloud of mass M collapses to a spinning superdense body of radius R most of its original gravitational source strength is lost. (The relative gravitational deactivation is given by GM/c²R, approximately.) Hence, the supermassive bodies located at the center of every galaxy contain several orders of magnitude more matter than is indicated by their gravitational field. Because of their high degree of gravitational deactivation, their remaining gravitational source strength is particularly sensitive to velocity changes.

e) The gravitational reactivation of matter and the generation of quantum mechanical, longitudinal gravitational waves (quantum mechanical wave function waves) during the expansion or explosion of a superdense, supermassive body; the propagation of this new form of gravitational waves and the action of these waves on the celestial bodies through which they pass.
As the supermassive bodies located at the center of a galaxy move about each other in a quasi regular manner, their velocities and, consequently, their gravitational source strengths are constantly changing in a quasi periodic and aperiodic manner. When such a body changes its gravitational source strength, it emits a quantum mechanical wave function wave that spreads out radially in all directions and carries with it small changes (in the ppb range at 10 kpc distance) in the local particle density of the seaon sea (the vacuum). Since the local electromagnetic properties of the vacuum and the local speed of light depend directly on the local seaon particle density, these physical quantities also change slightly (in the ppb range) within the wave.

When such a vacuum density wave generated at the center of the Galaxy reaches the solar system and passes through the Sun and the Earth, it induces a large number of correlated small-amplitude physical changes in these celestial bodies. In particular, when such a wave passes through the Earth, the atomic Bohr radius and the radius, circumference, rotational velocity, rotational axis angles and non-tidal gravitational acceleration of the Earth change in the ppb range. As a result of the circumference changes, earthquakes are triggered at the tectonic plate boundaries. (These gravitational waves also excite the rigid and elastic body modes of the Earth.)

These vacuum density waves, which carry with them small changes in the electromagnetic properties of the vacuum, occur in an extremely large period range from minutes to millennia.

On the Sun, these vacuum waves modulate the intensity of the thermonuclear energy conversion process within the core, and this has its effect on all physical quantities of the Sun (this is called solar activity). This in turn has its influences on the Earth and the other planets. In particular, the solar wind and the solar magnetic field strength are modulated which results in large changes in the intensity of the cosmic radiation reaching the Earth. Cosmic rays produce condensation nuclei so that the cloud cover of the atmosphere and the Earth albedo also change as does the world climate which displays a quasi-cyclic behavior with a period of 70 - 80 years.

On the Earth, the steady stream of vacuum density waves produces parts-per-billion changes in a large number of geophysical quantities. The most important quantities are the radius, circumference, rotational velocity, gravitational acceleration, VLBI baseline lengths, and axis orientation angles of the Earth, as well as the orbital elements of all low-earth-orbit satellites. All of these fluctuations have been measured.

Irrefutable evidence for the existence of this new, super-Einsteinian wave type is provided by the extremely close correlation between changes of the mean temperature and fluctuations of the mean rotational velocity of the Earth in the past 150 years. (see Fig. 2.2 of Einsteinian theory cannot explain this amazing correlation between two physical quantities that seem to be completely unrelated.

This post-Einstein effect also explains the formation of the multiple rings in ring galaxies, the sudden transitions between the geological strata, as well as the synchronous fluctuation of the solar neutrino flux and the solar wind.

f) The gravitational laser GASER (Gravitational Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and the supercritical gravitational chain reaction as a result of the nonlinear gravitational interaction of superdense, supermassive bodies. In the case of two closely spaced superdense bodies, this nonlinear interaction can lead to gravitational instability resulting in the explosion of the two strongly interacting bodies. This quantum mechanical post-Einstein-effect could explain the generation of gamma ray bursts.